Dry Eye Syndrome

Healthy eye produces tears all the time, not only when we are emotional or crying. Tear film which prevent eye from dryness, infections, keep eyes clear, smooth and wash away foreign particles thus preventing eye damage. Today approximately 17%-30% of people have dry eyes in their life.
Dry eye syndrome may also be called as Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, dysfunctional tear syndrome, lacrimal conjunctivitis, aqueous tear deficiency, evaporative tear deficiency
Dry eye is defined as disease of tears, where production of tears is very low and evaporation is very fast, if left untreated may lead to visual disturbance i.e.,blurred vision, discomfort, and damage to ocular surface.
Tear film consist of three layers:
1. Outer layer – It contains oil containing lipid
2. Middle layer- It contains water and is the thickest layer
3. Last layer- It contain mucus which allows tear to spread evenly all over the eye.

Classification

  • Aqueous deficient dry eye
It is disorder of lacrimal gland, which is unable to produce enough watery component (i.e., tears) therefore it affects eye surface.
  • Evaporative dry eye
It is disorder of meibomian gland, a gland which slow down the evaporation of tears and keep them stable.

Factors causing dry eye syndrome:

According to new study, computer vision syndrome is the major complaint affecting almost 50-60 percent people, and develop dryness in eye. Second major factor causing dryness in eye is as we grow older, production of tears decreases. Also wearing contact lens can cause dry eye syndrome.

Signs and symptoms

  • Decrease vision or blurred vision
  • Stinging, itching, redness, pain and burning sensation in eye
  • Persistent irritation or scratchiness
  • Excess tearing, for example,when reading, driving, or watching television.

Preventive measures

  • Avoid smoking
  • Enviromental factors can cause dry eyes. For example, avoid dust, air blowing in eyes, dry places like high altitude etc.
  • Computer usage- Keep computer below level of eye and one arm distance between computer and eye.
  • Take eye break- Close your eyes for a while when there is constant visual concentration.
  • Use eyeglass.

Treatment

  • Eye drops and other lubricants are used for treatments.
  • These help your eye to produce more tears and thus prevent dry eye syndrome and redness in eye.

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