Glaucoma

Healthy eyes are generally affected due to lifestyle, speed up of vision loss due to certain conditions like stress to your eye caused by continuously staring at computer, T.V. etc.
In healthy eye fluids circulates in front and back portion of eye, thus maintain the pressure inside eye (production and excretion at the same time), but if, person has Glaucoma, aqueous humour does not flow out and creates pressure and cause damage to optic nerve fibres, which send signals from retina to brain and gives image.
Glaucoma is a disease that affects the optic nerve present at the back of the eye, get worsen with time, that usually happens when fluid accumulates in front part of eye, increases pressure in eye (Intra Ocular Pressure) and damage the optic nerve. It affects pheripheral vision first.
Glaucoma has no early symptoms and the disease progress slowly and vision loss occur very gradually over 55 years of age, but early detection and treatment can slow the vision loss.

Types of Glaucoma

  • Primary open angle glaucoma
  • Secondary glaucoma
  • Closed angle glaucoma
  • Low tension glaucoma
  • Congenital glaucoma

Causes

  • Imbalance of intraocular fluid(production and drainage)
  • Poor blood flow
  • Optic nerve damage
  • Glaucoma may occur due to family history, diabetes, age factor (> 40 years of age) and other eye risks factors.

Signs and symptoms

The first sign and symptoms shown in Glaucoma patient is loss of side or peripheral vision, at severe conditions can notice the symptoms like,
  • Sudden eye pain
  • Headache
  • Blurred and narrow vision
  • Appear holes around light
  • Eye redness
  • Sensation of nausea and vomiting

Treatment

Treatment depend upon the type, severity, age, health and medical conditions. The treatment includes:
  • Eye drops
  • Laser surgery
  • Microsurgery
  • Lifestyle (Exercise and Nutrition)

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Conjunctivitis

Conjunctiva covers thin white layer of eye inside surface of eyelid. It provides lubrication to the surface of eye. If conjunctiva is inflammed due to factors like bacteria, fungi, infectious substance, non-infectious substance, allergic reaction etc., it leads to enlargment of blood vessels and cause redness of eye (conjunctivitis). Conjunctivitis or pink eye is common in school aged children.

Signs and symptoms

  • Redness and inflammation in conjunctiva
  • Release of excessive water (tear) or mucous from eye
  • Burning, itching and scratchy sensation in eye

Classification of conjunctivitis

1. Based on cause: Infective conjunctivitis
  • Bacterial
  • Viral
  • Chlamydial
  • Fungal
  • Protozoal
  • Parasitic
Non-infective conjunctivitis
  • Allergic conjunctivitis
  • Traumatic conjunctivitis
  • Irritative conjunctivitis
  • Dry eye or Keratoconjunctivitis
  • Endogenous/ autoimmune conjunctivitis
2. Based on conjunctival response:
  • Follicular conjunctivitis
  • Papillary conjuctivitis
3. Based on clinical presentation:
  • Acute purulent conjunctivitis
  • Acute mucopurulent conjunctivitis
  • Chronic conjunctivitis
  • Serious conjunctivitis
  • Angular conjunctivitis
  • Membranous conjunctivitis

Causes

There are three main categories  for pink eye or conjunctivitis
  • Allergic conjunctivitis is more common in people already having seasonal allergy or who come in contact with foreign substances in eye.
  • Infectious conjunctivitis (bacterial and viral conjunctivitis) caused by bacteria staphylcoccal and by contagious virus.
  • Chemical conjunctivitis caused due to noxious substance or air pollution

Preventive measures

  • Maintain good hygiene conditions.
  • If your eyes are infected wash your hands to touch your eyes, stop applying cosmetics or eye care products and avoid sharing pillows or towels to help prevent it from spreading.
  • If you get allergic conjunctivitis apply cold compression on closed eyelid and avoid rubbing your eyes.
  • If you have bacterial and viral conjunctivitis apply warm compression on the closed eyelid.
  • Meet opthalmologist for further instructions.

Treatment

  • Antibiotic eye drops or ointment
  • Artificial tears
  • Warm compression
  • Cold compression
  • Avoid animal contact if you get allergic reaction

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